1.What Software is and Its Types
1.1. What does software mean?
A set of instructions, data, or programmes on PCs, mobile phones, tablets, or other smart devices is referred to as software. It’s the polar opposite of hardware, which refers to the computer’s or other device’s physical components.
1.2. Types of software
Compilers, text editors, linkers, debuggers, and interpreters are examples of programming software, which includes compilers, text editors, linkers, debuggers, and interpreters.
Application software is built on top of system software. Device drivers, operating systems (OS), utilities, text editors, and compilers are examples of system software that can help a computer run more effectively.
Application software (sometimes known as apps) is software that is designed to execute certain activities. Business software (CRM, HRM, etc. ), SaaS apps, game applications, database systems, and other types of application software are examples.
A single programme or a collection of separate applications might be considered application software. This is the type of software that most people think of when they say “software.”
Freeware, open-source, commercial software
- Open-source software can be used for free without paying any fees-the latter even provides the source code used to make the program so that anyone can modify or improve it.
- Freeware is a type of software, usually proprietary software, which is distributed to end-users at no cost. Unlike free and open-source software that is usually provided for free, the source code of free software is usually not available.
- Commercial software is designed or developed for licensing or sale to end-users, or commercial purposes.
2. What is Software Development?
2.1. What does software development mean?
Initial research, specification, data flow design, process flow design, flowcharts, app designing, programming, testing, and debugging are all part of software development (also known as application development and software design).
The many stages of the software development life cycle are represented by this procedure (SDLC).
2.2. 12 types of software development
Software application development
The process of creating a set of computer applications that run on standard desktop operating systems like Windows, Mac, or Linux is known as software application development.
Client-side (frontend) web development
The “client” side is the part of the application that the user sees (clients). This includes the material that the user sees, such as text, graphics, and other user interface elements, as well as any activities that the programme performs within the user interface.
Server-side (backend) web development
“Server-side” refers to anything that occurs on the server’s side, which is hidden from the user’s view. Almost all business logic runs there, including dynamic web page rendering, database interaction, and certification identification, among other things.
The use of server-supported languages (such as Ruby, Java, PHP, and C#) to develop code that runs on the server is known as server-side programming. plus a lot more.
Mobile development, often known as “application development” or “app development,” entails the creation of apps for mobile devices running the iOS or Android operating systems, as well as the Windows 10 platform.
API development, also known as application programming interface development, is the process of creating specific applications that serve as linkers between different software components on desktops, mobile devices, and the Internet. API development is the foundation for standard processes, types, tools, GUI interaction techniques, and database access rules, and it can be used by programmers who create other apps.
Embedded software development
Embedded software development is booming, thanks to the rise of Internet of Things technologies and ecosystems. This category is for people who want to learn how to code for embedded systems like the Raspberry Pi, Arduino, and Beaglebones. Embedded software is software that is dedicated to a certain machine or piece of equipment.
Instead of using personal PCs or local servers, cloud services use a remote server network to store and manage data. Cloud computing software developers have created software that supports cloud storage applications such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft OneDrive storage, and GitHub.
Security software development
Penetration testers (also known as “white-hat” ethical hackers) and cybersecurity specialists collaborate to protect the company’s systems and data. The cybersecurity team creates software to safeguard critical firm assets from theft, viruses, and other hostile activities.
After that, the penetration tester tries to “hack” the system in order to locate the vulnerability or weakness.
Software tools development
This form of development creates software tools that allow other programmers to test their code. Aside from simple testing, the creation of this programme will guarantee that the code of other developers satisfies industry standards and is maintainable.
It’s never easy to create programmes to test other programmes, which is why tech titans like Microsoft and Google engage software developers to create apps that can be used to evaluate other projects on the go.
3.Software Development Process and Methodologies
3.1. What is software development life cycle (SDLC)?
SDLC, or Software Development Life Cycle, is a set of worldwide standards that software development organisations can use to create and improve their programmes. It gives a specified structure for development teams to follow in order to design, create, and maintain high-quality software. The goal of the software development process is to create a high-quality product while staying within a set budget and timetable.
The SDLC is a step-by-step guide that outlines how to plan, build, and maintain software. Each stage of the SDLC has its own set of processes and deliverables. In most circumstances, 6 to 8 phases are defined.
- It provides the basis and framework for project planning, planning, and estimation;
- It allows correct project tracking and control;
- It improves the visibility of the project plan to all stakeholders;
- It increases and improves development speed;
- It Improves customer relations;
- It helps you reduce project risk and project management plan overhead.
3.2. What are software development methodologies?
There are many software development methodologies (models) used and tested for the past 70 years.
The most prevalent technique nowadays is Agile methodology, which encourages constant interaction between development and testing throughout the SDLC process of any project. The entire project is separated into small incremental builds in agile software development approaches. All of these builds are delivered in iterations, with each one lasting one to three weeks. Scrum and Kanban are the most prominent Agile techniques.
Another extensively used SDLC paradigm is the waterfall. The entire software development process is separated into multiple stages of SDLC in this manner. The output of one step is used as the input for the following stage in this SDLC architecture.
The early stages of this SDLC model are document-intensive, and they record the procedures that must be completed in succeeding stages.
The incremental model isn’t intended to be used on its own. It basically consists of a series of waterfall cycles. The requirements are sorted into categories at the start of the project. To build software, follow the SDLC methodology for each group. The SDLC process is continued until all requirements are met, with each version adding more features. Each cycle works as a maintenance period for the preceding software version in this technique. The incremental model has been tweaked to allow for overlapping development cycles. The following cycle can begin before the previous cycle is completed.
The software development toolkit has grown significantly in recent years. Software engineers can utilise hundreds or even thousands of different tools to create programmes, including languages, frameworks, databases, and so on.
The toolset is determined by the type of software development, the software development life cycle (SDLC), and some personal preferences. Below is a quick rundown of tools that can be used.
Languages & tools you should know if you are planning to become a software developer
Software Application Development
Web Frontend Development
- HTML / CSS
- CSS Preprocessing
- Version Control
- Responsive Design
- Testing/Debugging tools
- Sencha (ExtJS)
- Browser Developer tools.
Web Backend Development
- Browser Developer tools.
- Objective C
Embedded Software Development
- Embedded C
- Arduino (an embedded C derivative)
- Neo4j Graph
- AWS DynamoDB
Cloud Software Development
- Google’s Go!
Data Science Development
BI & Reporting
Project Management Tools
- Webex Meeting
- Stack Overflow
- HTML5 Builder
On the one hand, the software development field is relatively new and rapidly developing, and many fields (such as careers) still lack standards or regulations; on the other hand, many best-practices have been tested and defined, particularly in terms of software development processes and methodologies.
Although software development languages, frameworks, tools, and instruments will evolve, we can already state that the groundwork for producing high-quality software has been laid.